A2 Establishing causal links Activities & Weblinks
The following activities develop ideas about establishing causal links. These ideas are also referred to in other activities.
Design of cohort and case control studies
A course on evidence based medicine includes a nice set of explanations, with graphics, of the key terms such as double-blind or cohort study from a US university.
Chapter 5 of the publication ‘Identifying the environmental causes of disease’ from the National Academy of Medical Science provides an excellent discussion of different research methods and their advantages and disadvantages. For teachers.
An explanation of epidemiology from the Open University.
More detailed explanation of epidemiology from the BMJ, called ‘epidemiology for the uninitiated’.
Useful definitions and explanations on design of epidemiological studies from NHS choices.
Set of articles from the James Lind library using historical examples to explain key issues, including bias and meat-analysis
Interpretation of data
Explanation of p-values and confidence intervals
A useful set of pages explaining different ways of calculating and presenting data, from BEEP.
Information on evidence based medicine and how to make decisions about treatments from the British Medical Journal.
Series of articles with clear explanations of topics such as bias and confidence intervals from Bandolier.
Ben Goldacre’s Bad Science site, with lots of lively articles providing relevant examples of science claims that don’t withstand close examination.
Lots of examples of correlation coefficients and the scatterplots they relate to.
Examples of scatterplots where the correlation coefficient may be meaningless. Includes the effects of outliers.
Discussion of how to interpret research on health risks
Good explanations on analysing results for journalists.